Article fait par :Claude Balmefrezol
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Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Ausf.E (Tiger I)
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With his 56 tons ,the best quality of the German rolled homogeneous nickel-steel plate armor, and the terrific 88 mm KwK 36L/56 high-velocity gun, Tiger I was designed to dominate the battlefield. This name until the end of the war.was Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Ausf.E (Sd.Kfz.181 Sonderkraftfahrzeug ), or Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Ausf.E
In this history I don’t remake an history of the War Machine
Just a little summary because you cant found in the Web lot of articles
Germans before W W 2 didn't clearly specify the parameters used to define a light, medium or heavy tank.
The Panzer 4 was not a tank !!! .
So quickly a theory born in some countries and a clear definition of the three generic tank types was developed in Germany US UK and USSR the Soviet Union . The classification was based on the weight of the tank and the doctrinal missions of each type
Light tank was employed in reconnaissance missions, so he has great mobility but not e much armor protection
Medium tank was use in exploitation or pursuit missions, requiring a different mix of mobility, armor protection and firepower. He was fast, and to have a greater level of mechanical reliability,
Heavy tank was could be support for the infantry and artillery, but the main purpose of the heavy tank was to penetrate the enemy's defenses In , consequence he has heavier weapon and high degree of armor protection
In 1937, Guderian described the operational principles and tactics that would shape German thinking on how to employ armored formations in a future war.
|Heinz Guderian (1888 1954 ) Internet|
The mission of the heavy tank is primary kill enemy's tanks in counter-attacks against German breakthrough attempts.
After victorious campaigns s where German doctrine was focused mainly on the offensive arrive years of doubts especially after the beginning of USSR invasion and the discoroy f T34 and KV1
Germany need upon an heavy tank ready to counter-attack any breakthrough of the German defense lines. Generalinspekteur der Panzertruppen, Guderian has understood the value of Tiger as a force multiplier factor either in the offense or in the defense.
Development of the Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Ausf.E
|Erwin Aders Tiger's Father|
After the decision to built Pz.Kpfw.III and IV, Reichskriegsministerium also called for an even heavier tank in 1937. This was to be of 30 t or more and was to be a heavy "breakthrough" tank to lead the armored assaults.
But with succes of the Blitz Krieg design lapsed until 1941,
In with the apparition of the KV 1 and T 34 OKW realized that the Pz.Kpfw.III and IV were inferiority situation against this new generation of tanks
He result a specification for a heavy tank capable of mounting the highly successful 88 mm high-velocity gun in a turret with full traverse and carrying sufficient armor to defeat all present and future anti-tank weapons.
Two firms submitted prototypes, using some of the developments from the 1937 ideas.
Only the turret was common to both and came from Krupp These were Porsche and Henschel.
|VK 45.01 (H) Internet||VK 45.01( P) Inteternet|
the Porsche prototype PzKpfw VI (VK 45.01 P) (Ausfürung P). of 5 March 1942 receive by WaPrüf 6 via th Inspekteur der Panzertruppen (In6) the designation, of Panzerkampfwagen VI P (88 mm) (SdKfz 181) Ausfürung P.
Henschel prototype received the designation VK 45.01 (H). Henschel quickly assemble the new tank using mixture of components available from previous heavy panzer . The project was a a 45 metric ton heavy tanks project ,with 80 mm front armor, designed Panzerkampfwagen VI Ausfürung B (VK 36.01). VK 45.01(H) was quickly created by redesigning the VK 36.01. with a Vorpanzer (frontal shield)
After tests conducted on 20 April 1942, the Henschel prototype was chosen for series production. Because Henschel prototype was more conventional, cheaper and easier to produce than the extravagant Porsche design.
At the time of its introduction,, the Tiger was the most powerful and protect tank with his 88 mm gun, which had 92 rounds of ammunition, and the armor who ensured that any frontal shot could not penetrate. Production began slowly in August 1942. Tiger. The nominal cost of a Tiger was 250800 Reichsmarks. ( PzKpfw III Ausf. M cost 103163 RM, a PzKpfw IV Ausf. G 115,962, RM and a PzKpfw V Panther 117100 RM ) However, the final cost of the Tiger's production was even higher - around 300,000 Reichsmarks.
Tiger tanks, began in August 1942, Henschel und Sohn, of Kassel, Germany and 1,355 were built by August 1944 when production ceased. Production started at a rate of 25 per month and peaked in April 1944 at 104 per month.with a peak on july 1944 of 671 German industry simply couldn't produce Tigers in sufficient numbers to make any difference in the big picture it was a task well beyond wartime German industry capabilities. When Tiger II began production in January 1944, Tiger I was soon phased out.rolling out of the production l Panthers were assembled alongsite Tigers at Henschel for a period in 1943. Henschel manufactured most of the major components in their plant. Although much of the installed equipment on the Tiger was subcontracted, Hulls, turrets, and other contract items and assemblies were brought into the assembly building where final machining operations and detail assembling were done
The Tiger differed from earlier German tanks principally in its design philosophy. Its predecessors balanced mobility, protection, and firepower
The internal layout was typical of German tanks. Forward was an open crew compartment, with the driver and radio-operator seated at the front, either side of the gearbox. Behind them the turret floor was surrounded by panels forming a continuous level surface. This helped the loader to retrieve the ammunition, which was mostly stowed above the tracks. Three men were seated in the turret; the gunner to the left of the gun, and the commander behind him. There was also a folding seat for the loader
Starting in September, 1943, Zimmerit anti-magnetic coating was applied at the factory to all upright surfaces that could be reached by a man standing on the ground. The surface was rippled to increase the distance to the steel surface without increasing the weight of the coating
|Soviet Document Internet|
The hull of the Tiger was a comparatively simple welded unit with a one-piece superstructure welded on top. The rolled homogeneous nickel-steel plate, electro-welded interlocking-plate construction armor had a rigorous quality control procedures ensured that it stayed that way. The armour joints were of high quality, being stepped and welded rather than riveted.
Armour protection plates are in front 100 mm, around the sides 80 mm, and 26 mm on the top
|Tiger Vs Firefly Internet|
Turret was also simple, and the sides were almost upright. The mantlet was very heavy, with 120 mm of armor From March 1944 on, the 25 mm roof plate was increased to 40 mm, to prevent penetration by large caliber artillery shells (over 150 mm), and the loader's hatch originally designed for the Tiger II turret was installed in the thicker turret roof.
So Tiger's armor was invulnerable to attack from most tank guns firing normal armor-piercing shells or shot at ranges over 800 meters, including the American 75 mm and the Russian 76 mm.
Only 17 pdr could be pierce this armour The tank was too heavy for most bridges, so it was designed to ford four-meter deep water. This required unusual mechanisms for ventilation and cooling when underwater. At least 30 minutes of setup was required, with the turret and gun being locked in the forward position, and a large snorkel tube raised at the rear. Only the first 495 units were fitted with this deep fording system; all later models were capable of fording only two meters In August 1943 on, and in order to simplify production, Henschel and Wegmann were ordered to cease installation of deep fording components. To ensure that the Tiger I could ford streams up to a depth of 1.5 meters, gaskets continued to be installed where components penetrated the hull
.In May 1943 a new commanders cupola with periscopes and a swivel hatch was installed, and along other modifications, an improved spring counter balance connected with a chain was installed for the 88 mm main gun
In July 1943, the turret was extensively redesigned
The Tiger has a terrific gun the 8.8 cm KwK 36 L/56 adaptation of the famous 8.8 cm Flak 36, which was a development of the Flugzeugabwehrkanone Model 18 (Flak 18). (Acht-acht,for Acht-komma-acht Zentimeter ) This gun after France campaing was also capable to destroy T-34 and KV-2 Russian tanks at longer ranges.But it is also t he use of the stereoscopic range finder at the right, which made possible for the 8.8 cm Flak 36 guns to hit targets at record ranges. The 88 mm KwK 36L/56 gun had a very high muzzle velocity .The kill/loss ratio attained by the Tiger battalions was 5.74 to 1
In May 1941 OKW had demanded a new Kampfwagen Kanone (Tank Gun) specification for the Tiger; to be capable of penetrating 140 mm thick armor at a range of 1,000 meters, without specifying that the caliber had to be 88mm. But on 26 May 1941, a Hitler's directive decide the use of a smaller but efficient caliber Rheinmetall receiving a contract in mid-July 1941 The first gun designed by Rheinmetall was , the 75mm KwK L/60, but it is only a test gun and because, Rheinmetall, was met, developed a longer gun, the 75mm KwK 42 L/70, to be fitted in a new turret, designed around this new gun.
By in July 1 1942, Hitler Panzerprogramm II established that this tanks would mount with the 88mm KwK 36 L/56 in the Krupp turret. The 75mm KwK 42 L/70. would be mounted on the PzKpfw. V Panther.
On july 14 1942 at a Panzerkomission meeting it was decide to mount the 88mm KwK 36 L/56.
The Tiger I, with its 88 KwK 36 L/56 gun, coupled with superior optics, could accurately hit targets at ranges the enemy could not even aim at.
Accuracy and Penetration Tables for the 8.8 cm KwK 36 L/56.
The 8.8 cm KwK 36 L/56 was a very accurate gun capable of first round hits at over 1,000 meters
(Tiger I started first round killing at 1,200 meters in combat conditions instead +/- 800 meters for most other tank and anti-tank guns )
Tiger platoons could open fire (concentrated platoon fire) for effect against stationary targets at up to 3,000 meters.
From January 1944 on, the Nahverteidigungswaffe (close defense weapon) was mounted on the turret roof. This weapon could fire smoke cartridges, signal cartridges, and grenades, but due to shortages, was not mounted on the Tiger I until March 1944
The sight and observation systems
The sights that equipped the Tiger I were the binocular Turmzielfernröhr 9b mounted parallel and on the same axis as the main gun. The Turmzielfernröhr 9b was an articulated binocular sight, with 2.5x magnification. The range scale was graduated at 100 meter intervals up to a maximum range of 4,000 meters. ( this explain that )
On the turret the borderfürher on the righ exposed in the open cupola hatch using binoculars to scout the far horizon. He determined the target selection, type of ammunition, and range. With is binocular Turmzielfernröhr 9b 8.8 cm KwK 36 L/56 was capable of first round hits at over 1,000 meters From April 1944 on, the monocular Turmzielfernröhr 9c (sighting telescope) replaced the binocular Turmzielfernröhr 9b.This sight allowed the gunner to select two magnifications, 2.5x and 5x
The gunner observed the tracer and the strike of the round and reported his observations to the commander, who then ordered corrections.Tiger as an hydraulic motor for the turret drive. The hydraulic drive traversed the turret at a maximum rate of 360 degrees in 60 seconds, dependent on the engine speed.
Placing the target on the point of a triangle allowed the gunner to aim without obstructing the view of the target. The triangle height and separation distances in mils were used as an aid in estimating the range to the target, by comparing them with the size of the target.
The pattern in the right reticule also contained the 7 triangles plus adjustable range scales that allowed the gunner to register the exact range to the target. The gunner adjusted the range through this sight by lowering or raising the gun to set the aiming sight again on target. The range scale was graduated at 100 meter intervals out to a range of 3,000 meters for the Armor Piercing Composite Rigid (APCR rounds,) 4,000 meters for the APCBC (Armor Piercing Capped, Ballistic Capped) rounds, and up to 6,000 meters for the HE rounds.
As far as the Tiger I is concerned, the two main types of armor piercing ammunition were the APCBC and the APCR.
Panzergranate 39 Armor Piercing Capped, Ballistic Capped (APCBC) round relied not only on its own weight to penetrate the enemy's armor, but was also filled with high explosive that caused great internal damage.
PzGr.40 Armor Piercing Composite Rigid (APCR) round was made with a tungsten core. For flight performance effects and to aid the shot from shattering against armor plating, The APCR rounds had a higher penetration capacity, but were less lethal than the APCBC after penetration, and also had a shorter effective range. A few rounds of the rare (due to the shortage of tungsten carbide) APCR (Pzgr.40) ammunition might be carried for use against the heaviest armored Russian tanks and tank destroyers
Gr.39 HL (Hohlgranate ( HEAT High Explosive Anti-Tank) was less accurate and much less destructive than the APCBC rounds, but could be carried in place of the HE rounds and used either to combat armor or as effective high explosive ammunition against soft targets.
Sch Sprgr. Patr. L/4.5 (Incendiary Shrapnel)
Tiger I carried 92 rounds of ammunition,with al mix(50% (Pzgr.39) and 50% Sprenggranaten - high explosive shells).
The Tiger I was very maneuverable for its weight and size, notwithstanding the legend
The engines for the Tiger I were developed specifically by Maybach company of Berlin (Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH). The first 250 Tiger receive an engine Maybach HL 210 TRM P45. V-12 water-cooled gasoline engine with a capacity of 21.33 liters The signification of the letter in Maybach list are the following
HL = Hochleistungsmotor (high performance motor)
TRM = Trockensumpfschmierung mit Schnappermagne (dry sump lubricant with impulse magneto)
P = Panzermotor (tank engine)
The compact engine put out tremendous power for its size. It was de 1.2m length, 0.97m width and 0.94cm height without the air cleaners. It was mounted in a sealed compartment at the rear of the Tiger.
But this engine was rushed into production without all the bugs being worked out. The engine could not be reliably operated at its maximum power ( 3000 rpms ) the Tigerfibel, recommended no more than 2600 rpms because the transmission, the Maybach OG 40 12 16 A, with 8 speeds forward and 4 reverse, although a surprisingly light set of controls for the driver, had a tendency to breakdowns if adequate preventive maintenance was not done
|Higth HL 210 bleow HL 230
The weight of the Tiger 57 tons was too much for the German transmissions available at the time and it was not always possible to do this preventive maintenance as required so it is recommended at the driver to do not exceed 2,600 rpm.
Soon it became obvious that the Tiger I was seriously underpowered. the original engines displacement was increased by replacing the aluminum cylinder block with a cast iron block and boring it out to 23.88 liters (1457 cubic ) because it was impossible to install a physically larger, more powerful motor in the engine compartment his increased the weight of the motor but also increased the rigidity. The result was a gain in power to 700bhp at 3000rpm. The new engine was designated the Maybach HL 230 TRM P45 with two air filters and installed in May, 1943. With this upgrade the Tiger's performance improved in normal use, but the transmission was still weak for the stress of the power generated by the engine moving the weight of the tank at maximum output, and preventive maintenance continued to be an imperative,. Tiger had a high fuel consumption rate of approximately 1.5 liter per kilometer. Since the total fuel capacity of the four fuel tanks was around 568 liters the operational range of a Tiger I was limited and refueling stops had to be frequent, especially when traveling off road.
German logistic plans expected the Tiger to be able to travel 195km on road and 110km off road before refueling.
For the speed In comparable to other German tanks of the time, it run at the same speed than the other german tank The Tiger I road speed was 38 km/h. Cross country speed was 20 km/h.
In comparison the Panzer IV road speed was 40 km/h. Cross country speed was 20 km/h and thee Panzer III (Ausf E to N) road speed was 40 km/h. Cross country speed was 18 km/h The only german tank that was faster than the Tiger I was the Panther, with a road speed of 46 km/h and a cross country speed of 24 km/h.
Bat he was still slower than many of its adversaries, such as the Russian T34.
To support the heavy weight of the Tiger, the tracks were an unprecedented 725 mm wide. To meet rail-freight size restrictions, the outer row of wheels had to be removed and special 520 mm wide transport tracks installed. With a good crew, a track change took 20 minutes.
Tiger's maneuverability was given by the combat tracks of 725 mm width, which resulted in a ground pressure of 1.05 kg/cm². And he could neutral steer (pivoting in place) , and completely turn around in a distance of 3.44 meters
To resume Tiger was not a "lumbering monster", and he was superior to the Sherman in muddy terrain, despite its size and weight, thank to his ground pressure The Tiger I was a very maneuverable tank, especially for its weight and size, but had its shortcomings. The necessity to change tracks for rail travel was one of those.
Early ( frühe)
Presence of feifel air cleaners the rear.
early model lacks track guards and track links
Commanders cupola with the vertically opening hatch.
Smoke discharger on the hull corner
Mid Production (Mittlere)
New cupola with side-swinging hatch.
Feifel pull out on December '43 or later.
Late (Späte )
Monocular sight (single hole to the right of the main gun barrel)( March 1944)
Hull extensions on the front where the tow cables attach. These were notched beginning in January 1944.
dual headlights remoted by 1 on the front of the hull
Tiger was a formidable but also a fragile war machine
As the Tiger was a Mighty MBT with a battlefield superiority he was constantly transferred from one point to the other on the battlefield - and even front to front - as "fire brigades".
Long road marches implied in mechanical problems, and Tigers consumed high quantities of precious gasoline (maximum combat radius of 195 Kilometers,/540 liters of fuel )
Beyond the great additional effort by the crewmen that was required, such a complicated transport process took even more time from the Tiger's combat availability. This process implied in a heavy logistical burden on the Tiger units, as they had to necessarily maintain two sets of tracks for each tank
So to save the potential of this MBY he was choose for great distances the rail. But in 1943 Germans have lost the air superiority and convoys were submit to air attack. This eventually limited transportation of Tigers by rail to the night.
Rail movement of Tigers, however, involved more complications, because special wagons were required to transport Tigers, and tiger will be equipped with e tracks rail transport ( less wide of the combat tracks )
The transfer of Tigers from one sector to another mean a heavy planning
For Tiger tank for transport to longer distances he was on special Wagon the Reichsbahn (SSyms-wagons).Reichsbahn has 2 special wagon for tank transports
4 and 6 axle flat cars SSys & SSyms "Koln"
In the beginning ofWW2 German army need for flat wagons with a high load capacity.
Especially for this purpose were the 4-axle wagons of the type Koln developed with the aim of heavy military vehicles and other heavy loads to move quickly to the different parts to the front.
In 1940, see the 4-axle type SSys development and production. These wagons have a payload of 50 tons. That was the beginning of the war it was sufficient for PzKpfW III and PzKpfW IV But the arrival of the PzKpfW V "Panther" with a weight of 43 tons and the Tiger with a payload of 57 tons could be transported in these wagons a heavier wagon was needed, which in 1942 led to the development of the 6 axis SSyms with a payload of 80 tons. This is the six-vehicle heavier variant of the four flat cars and with this wagon Tiger and its cargo could be transported so easily
But Tiger, however, was to wide, it had some modifications before such a pre-shipment be used. the mud on the side skirts were removed and he could be use over tracks for the travels on railway (Width 520 mm / Combat Chain 725 mm).
If a long distance was to be covered, it was customary that the tank crews bivouac with their tents or behind the tanks on the trucks, upon the wagon.
Many coaches who have survived the war in the 80s still served for the German Bundeswehr and the German railways for heavy used. A variant of the type Koln wagon was also produced after the war
SSys : 4-axle flat wagon type SSys "Koln".
Carrying capacity: 50T
Length: 10,80 M.
Number built: 1860 ±
SSyms: 6-axle flat wagon type SSyms "Koln".
Carrying capacity: 80T
Length: 13.20 M.
Number built: unknown.
The problem of the transmission was the recurrent problem of the Tiger
Tigers gearbox need adequate periodic maintenance but she never received this maintenance. So it usually resulted in a low operational rate of combat available tanks within the Schwere Panzer Abteilung - especially after long marches or extended periods of combat.
The outcome was low operational mobility as a result of those problems, which meant that Tiger units frequently had a very limited radius of action.
If the Western Front Allied air power, was the main reason of the destruction of Tigers on Eastern Front, the main causes of destruction of Tigers were the transmission problems
(with consequent abandon and/or destruction by the crews),
Russian air attacks, were numerous but only on the end of WW2
Absence of special recovery vehicles, was a problem to recovery this Tiger and it is prohibit at a tiger to tow other broken tanks.
The under carriage has a problem with ice and snow freezing on the interleaved road wheels He was not solved until the introduction of the Tiger II with overlapping, not interleaved, road wheels . In February 1944, steel road wheels with internal rubber cushioning, adopted from the Tiger II, were mounted in the Tiger I. These were chosen because of their ability to bear the weight of heavy armored vehicles
Recovery and Weight problems
Because of its weight Tiger encounter lot of problems
1st The tank's extreme weight limited the bridges it could cross and made drive-throughs of buildings, which might have had basements, risky
2nd La ck of recovery tanks for the tiger involve the loss of the Tiger
To recovery a tiger it is necessary 3 SdKfz Famo and it is forbidden ( in the text ) at a tiger to tow another Tiger . We found few Bergetiger built with frames of Elefant and the Bergetiger is a legend
The legend of the Tiger was overrated ?
The Tiger has dominated the battlefield since his apparition
Because : Tiger could choose its targets at will, and destroy them at ranges they either couldn't hit; or if they could hit, couldn't defeat the Tiger's thick armor but if he was a tremendous weapon , Tiger I maintained this standoff capability until nearly the end of the war, as it was only outclassed by the Russian JS heavy tank.
He was also fragile Lacks of maintenance and mechanic failures plus weight of the tank, had low operational mobility damaged or broken Tigers
If they were not recovered, they were destroyed by their crews.
The introduction of the Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Ausf.E heavy tank provided improvement in the German armored formationsthe Tiger was assigned to special heavy tank battalions (schwere Panzer Abteilungen - sPzAbt). These were to be held at army or corps level and assigned as needed to reinforce other units during a campaign. Only a few divisions ever received organic Tiger battalions. These included Panzergrenadier Division Großdeutschland and Panzer Lehr Division.
Prior to the Tiger's introduction, and lacking a true heavy tank, the Germans used the PzKpfw IV with a low velocity 75 mm main gun to fulfill the heavy tank role within the medium tank companies though Poland, France, and during Operation Barbarossa in June 1941. Until the German armored forces encountered Soviet heavy tanks, such as the KV I, KV II, and the T-34/76, the PzKpfw IV was sufficiently well armored and armed to meet the tactical demands of a heavy tank. The appearance of the T-34/76, specifically, greatly influenced and decisively accelerated German heavy tank development. The German Army needed a heavy tank with more armor and a larger main gun capable of penetrating the sloped armor of the T-34 The Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Ausf.E was the weapons system developed to meet those and future threats on the battlefield, and the schwere Panzer Abteilungen the organization that took form to meet these requirements.
As originally conceived, the schwere Panzer-Kompanien (heavy tank companies) were organized as three Zuege (platoons) each with three Pz.Kpfw.Tiger Ausf.E for a total of nine heavy tanks. Later the organization was expanded to include 10 Pz.Kpfw.III along with the 9 Tigers to compose one schwere Panzer-Kompanie. The first three units send into the field (schwere Panzer-Abteilung 501, 502, and 503) experimented with practically every possible combination of Pz.Kpfw.III and Tigers within their schwere Panzer-Kompanien.
Tiger was see first in action on September 22nd 1942 near Leningrad One tank was captured largely intact, which gave the Soviets a chance to study the tank and prepare a response.
After the Tiger were see in action in North Africa, were the tank was able to dominate Allied tanks in the wide-open terrain. However, mechanical failures meant that there were rarely more than a few in action .One Tiger was knocked out and he was now in Bovington museum
Tigers were usually employed in separate Schwere-Panzer-Abteilung under army command. These battalions would be deployed to critical sectors, either for breakthrough operations or, more typically, counterattacks. Wehrmacht but mostly SS unit panzer receive this MBT
He fight in Normandy and eastern front since the end of the war (2 tiger near Berlin)
few Tiger I's survived at WW2
Today in 2009 we could found Tiger I in Indoor Museum
Saumur tanks museum restored
Bovington Museum restored an in running condition
Aberdeen AGP restored
Lenino-Snegiri In very bad condition. A former badly shot and cut up firing range target. An outdoor exhibit and subject to frequent vandalization.
Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Ausf.E – sdkfz 181
Manufacturer Henschel & Sohn AG
Combat weight 57 tons
Crew 5 Commander in turret left rear Gunner in turret left front Loader in turret right rear Driver in hull left front Radio operator in hull right front
Length( without gun ) 6.31m
Width (Width 520 mm / Combat Chain 725 mm)
Height 3 m
Ground clearance 0.47 m
Engine Maybach HL230P45; 12 cylinder, 60° in "V" gasoline
Fuel capacity 540 L
Transmission Maybach OG 40 12 16 A, 8 speeds forward, 4 reverse
Max road speed 45km/h
grade 78 %
Max vertical obstacle 79 cm
8.8cm KwK.36 L/56 92 rounds
Elevation Turret 360° (manual and hydraulic6°/sec) +15° to -8° (manual)
7.92mm M.G.34 Coaxial 4800 rounds
AA 7.92mm M.G.34 Kugelblende 100 in right bow
Be carefull: the grave of the crew of Michael Wittman , crew of the tank killed in action on 19.08.1944 represented here is not a SS praise . It presents only the grave of a tank crew who wrote the pages of the Armour History during WW2
|Wittman Grave ( La Cambe Calvados)||Wittman'screw Grave ( La Cambe Calvados)|