Jagdpanzer SK 105 Kuirassier Vienne
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In the mid 60-ies the Austrian army decided to acquire self-propelled guns - tanks for operations in rugged terrain, where it was impossible to use a towed artillery. At the same time, self-propelled gun was supposed to be easy and cheap.So born intention to create one based on the tracked armored personnel carriers, produced by Austrian Sauer. But gun and its installation is not planned to develop their own (such experience with the Austrians were not) and it was necessary to buy a license for the turret French offered the tower FL-12co 105-mm gun (same installed on AMX-13).
This tower was a tough fastening gun at the top of the tower and the presence of the automatic loader. To ensure vertical lay the upper part of the gun turret swinging on the bottom. This is a technical solution at the time seemed very promising, as they provide a lasting solution to the problem of auto-loading gun.
However, by the mid 60-ies this construction looked like a pure anachronism: the presence of the ring except the tower, yet the gap between the swinging and rocking parts, sealing it difficult in dealing with water hazards and protection against weapons of mass destruction.
When you install the vertical stabilizer guns, it would make a very powerful, because pumping would have a gun with the top of the tower and autoloaders. Another drawback of this design was that once ran out of ammunition in the autoloader (12 pcs.), Its reloading was carried out only on the outside of the tank.
However, for the tank destroyer, which would have the Austrian army, these shortcomings were not so significant.. But the tower EL-12 had a small size, and with the automatic loader in the crew is reduced to 3 people.
License Agreement with the French was signed in 1965, then started designing a new tank destroyer on the company's headquarters Sauer-Werke (latter in 1970 into a company Steyr-Daimlen-Puch), called SK-105 "Kürassier." The first prototype was submitted for testing in 1967, the second - in 1969. In 1971 he was made pre-production party in the 5 car, then began mass production. Results so far produced about 600 cars entered the Austrian army and for export to other countries.
Tank destroyer SK-105 "Kürassier" has a classic line-up: Department of Management in a bow case, fighting in the center, and power pack - in the stern. Corps "Kürassier" welded steel armor plates, and in the frontal projection withstand an attack from the 30 mm cannon.
The driver is placed in front of the hull on the left. To monitor the battlefield, he has a periscope W * (* average periscope can be replaced by a passive night vision). In the stowed position the driver monitors the road through the open upper hatch. For protection from the weather may be fitted with a windscreen wiper. To the right of the driver, in the case, there are batteries and some ammunition.
Tower tank JT-1 is a licensed version of the tower FL-12. If at the beginning of the production of JT-1 apparently did not differ from the FL-12, then later, after modernization, the differences become quite significant. Tower of JT-1 has been installed over the fighting compartment in the center of the shell. It contains working space tank commander and gunner.
JT-1 is equipped with the commander's cupola with 8 periscope, Central has a 9 ° field of view and an increase in 7,5 times, the remaining seven - 28 °, and 1.6 times respectively. Instead the central periscope can be mounted night vision device with a sixfold increase. Available are 2 gunner periscope, and the front has a mechanical sight. Telescopic gunner's sight is an eightfold increase and the field of view 8.5 degrees.
Since the upper part of the tower is rigidly connected to the instrument and monitoring devices, firing of cannon and machine guns can be carried out as a gunner and commander, who have similar mechanisms of guidance.
In the tower is set 105-mm gun G1, which is a licensed version of the French guns CN-105-57. His ammunition is 44 rounds. Used shots 3 types: high-explosive fragmentation (weight 18.5 kg, initial velocity of 700 m / sec), smoke (weight 19.1 kg, initial velocity of 695 m / sec), and cumulative.
The main type of ammunition is the cumulative weight of 17,3 kg projectile with a muzzle velocity of 800 m / sec. Maximum firing range in such a projectile is 2700 meters Armor does not depend on the distance and angle of the projectile with the armor of the meeting at 0 ° is 360 mm or 150-mm armor when it is tilted at 65 °.
The loading gun made from two stores revolving type (for 6 rounds each), installed in the rear recess of the tower. Choosing projectile is carried out manually gunner or commander. After the shot sleeve is automatically ejected through a hatch in the stern of the tower. Rate gun reaches one shot in 5 seconds, until the drums do not stop missiles. Re-equip their missiles can only be outside the tank after 2 hatch located in the roof of the tower.
Barrel of the gun is equipped with a thermal sleeve for reducing thermal strain and increase the reserve for shooting. The gun has a locking mechanism to secure for sea. When shooting using a laser range finder TCV29 (measurement range from 400 to 9995 m). Since the inside of the tower is no place for him, it is located on the roof in a special armored with bronezaslonkoy. There also may be mounted floodlight type XSW-30-V. It is used for illumination purposes as in the visible and infrared light through a special filter.
Outside the tower on the left and right are on 3 smoke grenades, shooting of which can be as a volley, and alone. In addition, the tower is equipped for mounting canisters and camouflage nets. On the part of the export machinery for laying camouflage netting to put additional lattice basket.
In the rear of the hull located engine and transmission. The engine is equipped with engine preheaters air filter air cleaning (such as "Cyclone"), as well as automatic fire extinguishing system.
Hydraulic transmission has 6 speeds forward and one back, which allows you to independently adjust the speed of rotation of caterpillars, up to speed with equal speed in opposite directions. Driving wheels - lantern meshing with hydraulic brakes. The first and fifth rink have hydraulic shock absorbers. In addition, the first roller locked with the sloth to prevent soskakivaniya caterpillars. The tank is up to 4 support rollers on the side. Like sloth they obrezineny.
Suspension (with respect to one side) consists of 5 rubber road wheels with torsion bar suspension.
Rubber caterpillar consists of 78 trucks with rubber running track. In addition, for operations in winter conditions on the caterpillars may establish special steel tires.
Further development of SK105 was changed SK105/A1. Differences from the base model is a new transmission and fire control system. The latter is connected to a computer, which processes the sensor data of wind, atmospheric pressure, a laser rangefinder. Also, it will automatically enter the type of munition, and he gives the data for firing.
In addition, the "Kürassier were conducted and other work on modernization.
To improve the armor penetration guns, one tank was redesigned for the French kinetic energy ammunition projectile OFL105G1, with an initial velocity of 1460 m / sec and a mass of 3.14 kg (of which 1.84 kg of core).
But the shell is longer than regular shots "Kürassier" and does not fit in standard combat pack. Therefore, its application requires the conversion of the tower by the French type FL-15. Two-chamber muzzle brake guns replaced by a new form of mono-, Remade shops for shells and loading mechanism.
The possibility of such revisions proposed by Steyr-Daimler-Puch, but orders have not yet received any of the Austrian army not from other countries.
In addition, developed a more wedge-shaped body armor thickness of 35 mm for installation on the front of the tower. To demonstrate the possibility of upgrading SK-105 company Steyr-Daimler-Puch has produced a prototype tank SK-1051A2 with a fully stabilized turret, electrically driven vertical and horizontal guidance. By car, installed a new fire control system, taking into account the wear tools and data of four types of ammunition. The commander and gunner have a new night-vision devices.
Proposed and modernization of old tanks SK-105 in the modification SK-105/A1. This upgrade includes the movement of a searchlight from the roof of the tower on the left side of the gun, replacing the coaxial machine gun on FM MAG, the installation of additional armor on the front of the tower, a new transmission and fire control system, as well as night sights. Unfortunately, all of the proposed upgrade are expensive, but do not lead to significant improvements in fighting properties already rather outdated tank. So all this remains at the level of demonstration models and prototypes.
On the basis of "Kürassier" was created several support vehicles. First, an armored recovery vehicle Greif, production of which was launched in 1976. The car has a chassis "Kürassier", instead of the tower is installed armored conning tower crane with 6 tons. Above the engine compartment mounted body, ahead of the blade is. The latter can be used as a stop for a winch with a pulling force of 20 tons. Combat weight Greif reaches 19.8 tons, a crew of 6 people, arms 12.7-mm machine gun M2. Along with "cuirassiers" This machine is also exported.
On the basis of Greif for the Austrian army engineers designed tank. He has the same body and chassis that BREM, on the other blade, winch to pull 8 tons, instead of the crane installed hydraulic excavator. The machine weighs 19 tons, crew of 4 persons, arms 12.7-mm machine gun M2. In addition to these modifications, each "Kürassier" for two hours can be transformed into a car for driver training. To do this, instead of the tower establishes a special cutting. This is called 4KM7-FA (Fahrschulpanzer).
In the Austrian army "Kürassier" was delivered to other countries (most recently in 1997 in Botswana). Export cars had minor differences from the base machine.
At present Kürassier "is in service with the following countries:
Argentina - 150 pieces,
Austria - 250 pieces,
Bolivia 50 BREM and 18 engineering vehicles,
Bostwana 34" Kürassier and 2 BREM,
Morocco - 109 pieces and 11 BREM,
Tunisia - 54 pieces.
This Kuirassier was see in the Morfalous filmswith Jean-Paul Belmondo He was acted as a German tank!