Royaume Uni Aviation Short Sunderland (English Version)

Article écrit par : Claude Balmefrezol

Mis en ligne le 20/02/2009 à 07:03:35


 Short Sunderland the flying porcupine
French Version

The Short Sunderland flying boat was one of the mainstays of Coastal Command during WW2 and he was one of the longest serving military aircraft of its era, with an RAF career from 1938 until 1959.
Short Brothers Ltd
The company was founded in November 1908 by brothers Horace, Eustace and Oswald Short as Short Brothers Ltd., Since 1989 Eustace and Oswald had made balloons but in 1908 they tried to built under license Wright aircraft . At Leysdown, Isle of Sheppey,in 1909. They received order for six Wright biplanes, Company pioneered multi-engine and multi propeller types, and tractor biplanes with folding wings for naval use.
 New works at Rochester, Kent, started in 1914 and during WW1 184 torpedo-bomber were built  And it was a short aircraft to sink  a the first ship at sea . This type of aircraft were used during the Battle of Jutland .
After WW1 attention was put to all-metal aircraft and concentrated later on large civil and military flying-boats (; Calcutta and Kent for civilians use with Imperial Airways and Singapore biplane series for military use with RAF in1926).in 1936 company become Short and Harland Ltd. in 1936 and in 1943 British Government enter in the society follow in 1947 by a new change in Name Short Brothers Ltd. readopted June 1977, but current name Short Brothers PLC, as part of Bombardier Aerospace Group since 1989  where she lost its separate identity.
In 1993 Bombardier Shorts and Thomson-CSF formed a joint venture, Shorts Missile Systems, for the design and development of very short-range air defence missiles using experience dating back to the 1950s. In 2000 Thomson-CSF bought Bombardier's 50% share to become the sole owner. Shorts Missile Systems was renamed Thales Air Defence Limited in 2001.
In the early 1930s, competition in development of long-range flying boats for intercontinental passenger service was becoming increasingly intense and Great Britain had nothing to match the new American Sikorsky flying boats In 1934, the British postmaster general declared that all first-class Royal Mail sent overseas was to travel by air, effectively establishing a subsidy for the development of intercontinental air transportation
So British Imperial Airways announced a competition for an order for 28 flying boats, each weighing 16.4 tonnes (18 tons) and having a range of 1,130 kilometres (700 miles) with a capacity of 24 passengers Early in 1934 Imperial had asked Shorts to work on a design for an updated version of the Kent-type flying boat, with a range of 800 miles, 24 passengers and 1.5 tons of mail. Oswald Short, began a crash program with at the head of the design team Arthur Gouge. The design produced, the Short "S.23", was a clean and elegant aircraft, with a wingspan of 35 meters a length of 27 meters , an empty weight of 10.9 tons and a loaded weight of 18.4 tons . The S.23 was powered by four Bristol Pegasus air-cooled radial engines, each providing 686 kW (920 HP). Cruise speed was 265 KPH (165 MPH), and maximum speed was 320 KPH The S.23 featured a new hull design and a new flap scheme to reduce landing speed and run. The big flying boat had two decks: an upper deck for the flight crew and mail, and a lower deck with luxury passenger accommodations. 

The first S.23, named "CANOPUS", make its first flight on July 4th 1936 and he was the first of a series of Shorts flying boats for commercial service, collectively known as the "Empire" boats. A total of 41 S.23s were built, all with names beginning with the letter "C", and so they were also referred to as the "C-class" boats.
 S 23 Internet

But this fliyng boat was still not quite the equal of the big Sikorsky and Boeing Clippers The S.23 was relatively overweight and restricted in range and payload. It still performed reliable service in connecting Great Britain with the distant regions of the British Empire: South Africa, India, Singapore, Australia.but he could not operate on the high-profile transatlantic route.In 1937, the second and third C-class boats, the CALEDONIA and CAMBRIA, were stripped down and given additional fuel tanks to make the transatlantic run, though their payload was minimal. During World War II, the Empire boats were pressed into military service. Four S.30s were used for ocean patrol; they were fitted with later-mark Pegasus engines, and armed with twin Boulton-Paul turrets -- each with four 7.7 millimetre (0.303 calibre) machine guns -- plus racks for external stores. The three S.26 G-class boats had similar combat fit, but featured three Boulton-Paul quad turrets. Only one of these seven, an S.26, survived military service. It returned to commercial operation until scrapped in 1954
 To meet requirement R.2/33 of the Air Ministry for a general reconnaissance flying boat, Short developed the S.25 Sunderland from their famous S.23 "Empire" or "C-class" flying boat, the flagship of Imperial Airways..  These civilian flying boats were designed for Imperial Airways, who at the end of 1934 won a contract to carry most long range post within the British Empire.
The military flying boat variant was designated S.25, and the design was submitted to the Air Ministry in 1934. Sanders-Roe also designed a flying boat designated the "A.33" for the R.2/33 competition
The military ordered prototypes of the S.25 and S.33 for evaluation. The first S.25, now named the "Sunderland Mark I", flew from the River Medway on 16 October 1937
Shorts had a design ready  in June 1934, and proceed to the trials in  January 1935.
A first order for a batch of 14 fliyng boats was placed in May 1935 followed by an other in September.
before the first Empire boat had made its maiden flightThe maiden flight of the first of the Empire boats came on 4 July 1936. So the military version flow before the civilan version in  October 15th 1937. In the same time Short has an opponent in this challenge with the Saunders-Roe A.33. In March 1936 11 of Saunders ROE A 33 were ordered but the prototype of this aircraft make its maiden flight on October 14th 1938, and was damaged in a crash on October 25th . Repairs were not considered economical and the design was abandoned.
The prototype made its first flight   and he was to be armed with a two-gun powered nose turret and a four-gun powered tail turret. This moved the centre of gravity of the aircraft back, and forced Shorts to angle the wings back at 4 degrees.
A total of 749 Sunderland were built, in four factories.
331 In Short’s original base at Rochester
133 in new factory in Belfast (operated as Short & Harland).
 250 were built at Blackburn’s Dumbarton factory,
35 in a plant on the shores of Windermere
Sunderland was a pure flying boat in fact he had a similar hull to the S.23 Empire boats, but with a tapered rear step, which reduced aerodynamic drag.. It  had a deep hull, and the wings were set high on the fuselage, to keep the engines and propellers away from the water spray. It was a very impressive aircraft . The hull had a single step, which served to break the suction of the water, and allow the flying boat to unstick.
 Sunderland interior Internet

The fuselage of the Sunderland was roomy enough to give the crew of ten or more men some comfort on their long patrol flights, which could last up to 13 hours. The front part of the fuselage was divided in two decks. The upper deck contained the cockpit with the two pilots, and the stations for the flight engineer, the wireless operator and the navigator. There was also a compartiment for flares, and positions for the gunners,
The fuselage was built around a series of vertical box frames and divided into compartments by watertight bulkheads. The upper deck contained the five-man flight deck (pilot, co-pilot, radio operator, navigator and engineer). From front-to-back the lower deck contained the FN.11 turret with the bomb aiming position below, a store for mooring equipment, a toilet, the officers wardroom, then the galley, the bomb compartment, the crew’s quarters and bunks, the upper beam guns, a workshop and more storage a flush lavatory, a wash basin, and a shaving mirror. Crews would often collect their own set of dishes and cooking utensils, add curtains to the small wardroom, and install luxuries like a portable radio. and finally the FN.13 four-gun rear turret
Internet  Internet
  Internet   Internet

The characteristic blunt nose contained a retractable two-gun turret (for moored to a buoy , the front gun turret was rolled back and a chain was ran out. )  and the tail a four-gun turret.
The bomb aimer’s position was protected by a solid hinged window to prevent water breaking in when taking off or landing
The bilges had to be pumped out regularly, and for this both a manual pump and a pump driven by an Auxiliary Power Unit were installed.
To correct a problem with the center of gravity, the wings were given a slight sweepback
The result was that the engines were slightly toed out. This cost some engine efficiency, but an advantage was that it improved controllability with one engine out. The stabilizing floats under the wing tips were attached by two struts and wire-bracing.
The 910 kgs of bombs were stored internally on racks which could slide out into a position under the inner
On the water the aircraft was steered by canvas drogues, which were deployed through the galley windows. An anchor was on board,  
For daily maintenance  they were make when aircraft was moored. 
The manutention during this operation require some care to avoid damaging the hull Supplies, fuel and ammunition were brought by boats,
When the Sunderland his moored two men were on board during the night . During Bad atmospheric conditions ( gale tempest ) pilot had to be on board because the engines were used to turn the aircraft in the wind. But often crews live in their Sunderland between flights.
 Sunderland Mk.I was powered by four Bristol Pegasus XXII air-cooled radial engines of 1010 HP The fuel for these engines (11600 liters)was held in ten self-sealing fuel tanks in the wings, The Mk.II had slightly more powerful Pegasus XVIII engines with constant-speed airscrews, the Mk.III has Pegasus engines The Mk.IV was redesigned for operations in the Pacific; it was later renamed Seaford. Only six Seafords were built before the project was cancelled The Mk.V had American Pratt & Whitney R-1830-90B engines of 1200hp. Both the Pegasus and the R-1830 were very reliable engines, but the R-1830s had fully-feathering propellers, and in combination with the additional power this significantly increased a chance of a Sunderland to stay airborne with one or two engines out.
The armament is different according to the versions, the Mk.I had two guns in hatches on the upper aft fuselage. and late in its production run a dorsal gun turret was introduced, replacing the hatches.  addition to the guns in the nose and tail turret The Mk.II has a dorsal turret were retained by, which also had a more streamlined hull with a faired step. This reduced drag, but could cause porpoising during take-off and landing The Mk.V also had four fixed, forward-firing guns, and two hatches in the aft fuselage for additional guns. Mk.II also carried ASV Mk II Radar like Mk.III and the Mk.V.

The Sunderland was easy and pleasant to fly, and for long patrols pilots had the benefit of an autopilot. Its cruising speed was about 225km/h and it usually flew patrols at low altitudes. The main task of many Sunderland was tracking enemy shipping, flying long patrols over an empty sea. Some crews never saw an enemy in the entire war.
For U-boat patrols, he carrying eight depth charges, They patrolled the approaches, or flew convoy protection missions. The two were often combined, with the Sunderland meeting the convoys at some distance in the ocean.
When an U-boat was sighted, the Sunderlands tried to attack it before it submerged. Although described as "depth charges", its bombs were set to explode at a depth of 25 feet to 30 feet, effective enough against surfaced submarines.
Late in the war, the submarines were well-armed with Flak and willing to fight it out, while zig-zagging on the surface. In response, the Sunderlands were fitted with four fixed, forward-firing guns, to figth the U boat Flak. The confrontations were extremely dangerous for the two protagonists . Sunderlands also attacked small surface ships
The Sunderland also flew search-and-rescue (SAR) missions. It has to be pointed out that normally, the Sunderland could not land to pick up survivors. Like other flying boats, it could land and take-off only from sheltered coastal waters. From 1942 onwards, landings in open sea were expressly forbidden, except in special circumstances and with permission
But Sunderland was vulnerable to enemy fighters, because it was slow and operated out of the range of Allied fighters.
However, the later Sunderland were well-armed, with nose, dorsal and tail turrets, gun hatches in the aft fuselage, and often some additional guns added by the crews. Flying low above the waves to prevent attacks from below, a Sunderland was not an easy victim, and managed to defend itself very well.
For example, on June 2nd 1943 a Sunderland survived an attack by eight Ju 88s, shooting down three of them, although it was riddled with holes, lost an engine, and several crewmembers were wounded.
 Such exploits allegedly earned it the German nickname of "Fliegendes Stachelschwein" (Flying Porcupine), although this could also be attributed to the large array of radar antennas fitted to many Sunderland.

Although the Sunderland was not an amphibian, beaching gear allowed it to be pulled up on land. Two-wheeled struts could be attached to either side of the fuselage, while a small two-wheel trolley with a tow bar could be fitted under the rear of the hull.

The Short Sunderland Mk I

The Short Sunderland Mk I entered service in 1938, in the Coastal Command  
It was at the beginning of WW2 one of the few modern aircraft available
 The Mk I was powered by four Bristol Pegasus XXII engines, each giving 1,010hp. It was armed with eight 0.303in machine guns – two in a retractable nose turret, four in the tail turret and one each in two beam positions at the rear of the upper deck.
89 Sunderland Is were completed between 1938 and 1941 ( 74 built at Rochester in Shorts’ factory and 15 at Dumbarton in Blackburn factories ).
 Saro Lerwick   Saro Lerwick

After the failure of the Saro Lerwick program in 1940 Sunderland production take back after an interruption of one year and   production of  Sunderland Mark II began.
 Sunderland Mark1  Sunderland Mark1

Specifications of the Sunderland Marl I  
Engine: Four Bristol Pegasus XXII
Power: 1,010hp
Span: 34.4m
Length: 26.7m
Height: 10.5m
Max speed: 336 km/h
Loaded Weight: 25.4tons
Armament: Two 0.303in in nose turret, four in tail turret and two in beam positions
Bomb load: 900kgs on retractable racks
Squadron  No.210 at Pembroke Dock and No.230 at Seletar (Singapore), in  summer of 1938. In 1939 at the start of WWII we found Squadron No.204 and 228 Squadron.
The Short Sunderland Mark II the porcupine
 Sunderland Mark 2  Sunderland Mark 2

The Short Sunderland II was introduced in 1941, and was the first version of the aircraft to carry ASV radar. It was probably this radar installation that earned the Sunderland the German nickname “porcupine”.
The ASV Mk II radar needed eight transmitter aerials on each side of the hull, four dorsal dipole receiving masts and central and underwing Yagi homing aerial arrays, so the Sunderland really did bristle with spikes.

It was  was powered by four Bristol Pegasus XVIII engines with two stage super-chargers.
 During the production run the two beam guns were replaced with a two-gun F.N.7 turret
 43 Sunderland IIs were produced  ( 23 at Shorts’ Rochester plant, 15 at Short & Harland, Belfast and 5 by Blackburn at Dumbarton. )
 The extra equipment increased the weight of the Sunderland II, and despite the slightly more powerful engines the overall performance went down slightly.
Specifications Short Sunderland Mark II the porcupine
Engine: Four Bristol Pegasus XVIII
Power: 1,050hp
Span: 34.4m
Length: 26.5m
Height: 10.5m
Max speed: 329kms/h
Loaded Weight: 26.5tons
Maximum Range: 2,800 nautical miles/ 5200kms
Armament (early): Two 0.303in in nose turret, four in tail turret and two in beam positions
Armament (late): Two 0.303in in nose turret, four in tail turret and three in dorsal turret
Bomb load: 2,000lb on retractable racks
The Short Sunderland Mark III
 Sunderland Mark 3

The Short Sunderland III was produced in larger numbers than any other version of the aircraft, accounting for 463 of the total of 749 Sunderlands that were built. The main change introduced on the Mk III was the use of a faired main step on the bottom of the fuselage. This reduced the drag caused by the boat hull by ten percent, but did have some impact on the aircraft’s handling in water.
The prototype Mk III, was a converted Mark I
 who, made its first flight on June 28th  1941, and the first production aircraft flew on December 15th  1941.
The Sunderland Mk III was very similar to the Mark II, with the same guns and ASV Mark II radar.
 Early in 1943 a new radar the  ASV.Mk III was installed. This was based on the centimetric H2S radar used by Bomber Command, and unlike the ASV II radar could not be detected by the U-boats.
The last batch of Sunderland Mark III was given ASV.Mk IVc radar, which replaced the Yagi aerials with under-wing split scanners in protective radomes.
Later Sunderland Mark  III also receive a battery of four fixed 0.303in machine guns in the nose, to counter the increasingly powerful anti-aircraft armament carried by the U-boats.
186  Sunderland Mark III were  produced by Shorts at Rochester,35 on Windermere and the rest at Belfast and Dumbarton.Sunderland Mk III was the last significant version of the Sunderland
 Sunderland Mark 3  Sunderland Mark 3

Specifications of Sunderland Mark III
Engine: Four Bristol Pegasus XVIII
Power: 1,050hp
Span: 34.4m
Length: 26.5m
Height: 10.5m
Max speed: 337kms/k
Ceiling: 5200m
Loaded Weight: 26.5tons
Armament: Two 0.303in in nose turret, four in tail turret and three in dorsal turret; four fixed 0.303in guns added to nose in later aircraft
Bomb load: 990kgs (retractable)
The Short Sunderland Mark IV
 Sunderland Mark4 ( Internet )

The Short Seaford was originally developed as  Mk IV, to be used in PTO and he wil use the Bristol Hercules engines of the Shirt Stirling. Only two prototypes and eight production aircraft were built, and the type never saw combat.
Work on the Sunderland IV began late in 1941. Hercules engines would increase the speed and range of the Sunderland, making it more suitable for use in the PTO.
But after the Japanese victories, which quickly pushed the British back to the Indian border and away from the areas where flying boats were most useful, work on the Sunderland IV progressed very slowly.
The prototype of the Sunderland IV make its maiden flight until 30 August 1944.
The new aircraft was longer than the standard Sunderland, with a wider fuselage. Early tests proved that it needed a bigger tail, and the new tail plane was given a distinct dihedral to keep the horizontal tail plane clear of spray.
 Mark IV was the faster version of the Sunderland by 29mph, but had a lower ceiling and shorter range than any other version.
By in the same time the prototype of the first Mark V fly with its Pratt & Whitney engines
The Mk IV would have been very heavily armed. It was to have carried two 20mm cannon in the dorsal turret, two 0.5in guns in the nose and tail turrets and beam positions and two fixed 0.303in guns in the nose. Payload would have been the standard 990kgs of all versions of the Sunderland.

Eight of the forty aircraft ordered were completed, and were given the new name Short S.45 Seaford. After a short use for trials in 201st Squadron they were converted for civilian use as Short Solent
Specifications of Sunderland Mark IV
Engine: Bristol Hercules XIX
Power: 1,700hp
Span: 34.4m
Length: 26.5m
Height: 10.5m
Max speed: 389kms/h
Ceiling: 3900m
Loaded Weight: 34tons
Armament: Two 0.5in guns in nose and tail turrets and two in beam positions, two fixed forward firing 0.303in guns and two 20mm cannon in dorsal turret
Bomb load: 2,000lb on retractable racks
The Short Sunderland Mark Mark V


It is the final version of the Sunderland and he remained in use in the RAF from early in 1945 until 1959. He take part in the Berlin air lift, patrolling the Yellow Sea during the Korean War and helping to support the British North Greenland expedition.
Pratt & Whitney Twin Wasp engines were tested in 1944 on sunderland Mark III These engines provided 150 more HPr each than the Pegasus XVIII used on the Sunderland mark II and IIII, and gave the aircraft spare power for the first time.
the Twin Wasps of the Mk V could run at lower power in normal operation, making them much more reliable. The Sunderland V was also the first version of the aircraft that could safely fly even if two engines failed on the same time.
The Sunderland V was equipped with 9cm ASV Mk. VIC radar, as used in the last batch of Mk IIIs. This radar set used split scanners installed in radomes on the wing tips instead of the array of aerials of earlier types of radar.
The Sunderland V went into production late in 1944, and a total of 153 were produced
53 by Short and Harland in Belfast and 100 by Blackburn at Dumbarton. Another 88 existing Mark III receive also the Pratt & Whitney engines to bring them up to Mk V standard.
Specifications of the Short Sunderland Mark Mark V .
Pratt & Whitney R-1830-90 Twin Wasp 14 cylinder air-cooled radial
Power: 1,200hp each
Crew: 10
Span: 34.4m
Length: 26.5m
Height: 10.56m
Max Speed: 342kms/h at 1500m
Ceiling: 5100m
Loaded Weight: 27.5tons
Armament: Four fixed forward firing 0.303in machine guns, two 0.303in guns in dorsal turret, four 0.303in guns each in front and tail turret and two (later four) 0.5in guns in beam positions
Bomb load: 2,000lb on retractable racks
Sunderland Operational Live



When the war broke out, Coastal Command had 34 Sunderland in service. Over 700 Sunderland were built and they served until 1959: 90 Mark.I, 43 Mark.II, 456 Mark.III and 150 Mark.V. By the start of WW2 we found three squadrons at the end of WW2 he serve in twenty-eight RAF and Commonwealth squadrons, alongside other planes Consolidated Catalina and Liberator
He take a vital part in winning the battle of the Atlantic alongside American Hudson, Liberators and Catalina
ETO European theater Operations and North Atlantic



He played a bigger part in the Battle of the Atlantic, t until the arrival of the long range Liberators
But lot of patrols were flown without making any contact with the enemy. The crew of Coastal Command’s patrol aircraft always had to be alert for the distant sighting of a U-boat (or later for a radar contact). A patrol that saw no U-boat activity was a success, for the presence of the Sunderland might have prevented an attack. Only 27 U boats were sunk by Sunderland in
1940 U 55 U 26
1942 U 559
1943 U 106 U 383 U440 U 454 U461U465 U 489 U 563 U607U 610 U663 U753
1944 U 107 U 243 U 270 U 297 U 385 U426 U571 U625 U 675 U955 U 970 U 1222.



Three Sunderland squadrons were available in Britain at the start of the Second World War – Nos.204, 210 and 10 (RAAF).
The 210th Squadron made the first sortie of the war on September 3rd 1939.
Squadrons .204, 210 and 228 fought in the Norwegian campaign in the spring of 1940 with a mix of reconnaissance and transport missions, before helping with the final evacuation.
In 1940 Sunderland armed with useless 100-lb anti-submarine bombs, and slightly more useful 250lb bombs sank two U-boats and damaged a third.
The U-55 was damaged by surface warships, and after was attacked and forced to scuttle by Sunderland of No.228 Squadron on January 30th 1940.During 1941 no U-boats were sunk partly because the U-boats could operate beyond the range of the Sunderland
In 1943 number of Sunderland squadrons increased New centimetric ASV Mk.III radar was introduced, allowing the Sunderland to detect German U-boats on the surface without themselves being detected.
First U-boat was sink in May 1943, follow latter after by five others U Boats in may 1943
May 1943 was the turning point of the battle of the Atlantic. Heavy losses forced Dönitz to pull his U-boats out of the North Atlantic.
Dönitz except a return for fortune notably in 1944 after the introduction of schnorkels allowed his boats to remain underwater for much longer, but the interlocking aerial and naval anti-submarine forces were able to defeat each of these attempts.
In the spring of 1944 see preparations for the D-Day invasion. So activities of Coastal Command’ was focused in the western Channel and the south west approaches, where the Germans were known to be concentrated U-boats in preparation for an attack on the invasion convoys.
On the morning of 6 June Allies had put in place a massive defensive screen on each side of the invasion fleet (Operation Cork), so no U-boats were unable to attack
Sunderland sank two U-boats (U-955 and U-970) on the night of 6-7 June.
After D day and the abandon of U-boat bases on the west coast of France. Germans forces were moved to Norwegian and German bases,
Sunderland squadrons redeployed from their bases in the south west of England and Wales up to Scotland. Their new patrol areas included the North Sea and British coastal waters, where the Germans achieved their last significant successes.
1945Was very quiet for Sunderland patrols
The patrols continued for a month after the German surrender in case any fanatical U-boat commanders attempted to continue the war.
The last mission took place on June 4th 1945.
MTO (Mediterranean theater Operations)
in 1939 only one Sunderland Squadron, No.228, was based at Alexandria but he was quickly moved back to Pembroke Dock.
Sunderland returned to the Mediterranean in the spring and summer of 1940.
No.230 Squadron moved west from Singapore in May 1940, while No.228 returned to Malta as Italy entered the war.
On June 28th 1940 a Sunderland of No.230 Squadron sink the RM Argonauta. Follow by a second submarine, the Rubino,
After long periods of uneventful patrolling routine was interrupted by the series of naval battles between the British and Italian fleets during them Sunderland are the eyes of the British fleet.
battles, at Cape Matapan in March 1941,
Sunderland’ could be find the Italian fleet
Sunderland were also involved in the campaign in Greece, helping in the evacuations from Greece and Crete, and rescuing the King of Yugoslavia.
Late in 1940 No.228 Squadron moved to West Africa, but No.230 remained in the Mediterranean until early in 1943.
During that time it took part in attempts to run supply convoys to Malta. Nos. 202 and 204 Squadrons also used the Sunderland for short periods in the Mediterranean, but none operated in the area after No.230 moved to East Africa in January 1943.
After the fall of France and the entry of Italy in the war in summer 1940 the road across Suez Canal and the Africa coast became dangerous because to Axis submarines So at the start of 1941 three Sunderland were move to Africa to Sierra Leone, where they formed the.95th Squadron and little after the 204th Squadron in August 1941,
Sunderland operated from Freetown, Bathurst, Apapa (Nigeria), Dakar (after 1943 )and Jui (Sierra Leone). In the areas patrolled by Sunderland not a single merchant ship was lost to U-boat attack but no U-boat were sunk.
PTO (Pacific theater Operations) and Far East
Sunderland begin its career in the Far the 230th Squadron at Seletar (Singapore) in 1938. In 1940 the squadron had moved to the Middle East, remaining there until January 1943. The squadron returned to Dar-es-Salaam to carry out patrols over the India Ocean. Despite constant patrols, the squadron never encountered an enemy submarine, while the Sunderland III proved to be rather less reliable in the Far East than over the Atlantic.
The problem was eventually traced to lower quality local oil, used in place of the imported oil that had been used by Imperial Airways.
Late in the war the Sunderland was used as a transport aircraft, helping to evacuate wounded Chindits from Lake Indawgyi (Burma). A bigger contribution came at the end of the war, when five Sunderland squadrons were used to ferry POWs and Allied internees home from Japanese captivity.
Post-war Career
After war Sunderland became the most important aircraft in Coastal Command. Because lot of land lease aircraft like Catalina, Hudson and Liberator return to USA or arer scrapped. They were replaced by Lancaster and Avro Shackleton
At the end of WW2 only five Sunderland squadrons remained in Coastal Command
2 in UK one each in Sri Lanka, Hong Kong and Singapore.
Production of the Sunderland also ended at Rochester and Dumfries during 1945, and at Belfast in June 1946.
204th and 230th Squadrons took part in the Berlin air lift in 1948, ferrying between the River Elbe and Lake Havel in Berlin during Cold war
Squadrons in the Far East took part in the long running anti-insurgency campaign in Malaya, at first as bombers and later patrolling around the Malaya coast. At the same time they found themselves patrolling off the Korean coast during the early years of the Korean War.
The home based squadrons were also used to support the British North Greenland Expedition of 1953-54.
These squadrons were disbanded during 1957. And on May 15th 1959 the last Sunderland of 209th Squadron Detachment made the last operational sortie, followed five days later by the last flight.
The RNZAF was the last military user of the Sunderland on April 2th 1967. A number of civilian conversions remained in use into the 1970s

 UK  Canada  Australia
 South Africa  France Aeronavale  Norway  Portugal

United Kingdom

 85th  squadron  88th squadron  95th squadron  119th squadron  201th squadron  202th squadron  204th squadron  205th squadron
 209th squadron  210th  squadron  228th squadron  230th  squadron  240th  squadron  246th squadron  259th squadron  270th squadron

85th Squadron 88th Squadron 95th Squadron 119th Squadron 201st Squadron 202nd Squadron
204th Squadron 205th Squadron 209th Squadron 210th Squadron 228th Squadron 230th Squadron 240th Squadron 246th Squadron 259th Squadron 270th Squadron 235thSquadron Operational concersion Unit

 10th squadron 40th Squadron   461th  squadron

10th squadron RAAF 40th squadron RAAF 461st squadron RAAF t

 403rd squadron  423th squadron 461st squadron

422nd Squadron RCAF 423rd Squadron RCAF 461st Squadron RCAF
New Zealand

 5th squadron  6th squadron 490th  squadron

5th Squadron RNZAF 6th Squadron RNZAF 490th Squadron RNZAF
South Africa

 SAAF  490th squadron

35th squadron SAAF

 7F  12S
 27S  50S 53S

343rd Squadron RAF, later Escadrille 7FE Flottille 1FE Flottille 7F Flottille 27F Escadrilles 12S Escadrilles 50S Escadrilles 53S

 Norway  330th  squadron

330th Squadron RAF

 Portugese Navy

Portuguese Navy


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